Training Need Analysis in Cooperative Dairy Sector
Rapid forces of globalization have resulted into stiff competition with improved-quality, food-safety and the low-cost, the three major factors emerging critical into the domestic and the international trade to have an edge over the competitors. Besides, the management concept of balancing economic, environmental and social imperatives (Triple-Bottom-Line Approach) plays an important role in the international trade. One would agree that information or the technology is click-away, it is human, the most active and live factor in the organization, which needs attention. In the era of globalization, the type of people, their capabilities, the willingness with which they work and the commitment they exhibit towards the organization determine the competitive edge of an organization in the international market. In the market driven economy, it is a challenging task to carry out the function of human resource management especially in the area of Training & Development from time to time.
Dairy scenario is no different with the fact that India is the number one in the milk production in the world with almost negligible share in the international trade on account of stiff competition in the market – domestic and international. Looking at the statistics, India’s production of approximately 132.47 MT in the year 2012-13 is around more than 17% of the world milk production (World Mlk Production for the year 2012: 760 MT). With further anticipated growth in the milk production at the rate more than 4% and the fact that a substantiate number of experienced professionals at various level will retire or superannuate in the next few years, it is high time and prudent to have a well thought out plan for the industry on training and development.
In view of this a Training Need Assessment exercise was undertaken by the Western Region of the Dairy Board with following objectives:
- To understand the training, learning and educational needs and to identify performance requirements and the Knowledge-Skill-Ability (KSA
- To design and implement learning and development programs that are aligned to build people capability
The immediate benefits can be seen briefly as under:
- Training & Development (T&D) being heart of a continuous HRM efforts, it helps design to improve employee competency, morale and thereby organizational performance.
- Appropriate Training and the Development activities provides learner with the knowledge and skills, both current and future, needed for their present jobs and beyond.
- Help meet social obligations through systems resulting in improvement in quality, reduction in losses, reduction in energy conservation, reduction in pollution, enhancement of product safety..etc.
Training Need Assessment and the ultimate outcomes envisaged
It is abundantly clear that implementation of the activities aligned with the objectives on Training & Development would result critically into available adequate numbers of quality human resources that would assume the responsibilities to deliver following key-outcomes:
- Meeting milk demand through domestic production that is economically efficient and internationally competitive.
- Ensuring livelihood opportunities through an inclusive approach so that milk producers including the poor and marginal gain access to market on terms that are fair and earn a steady flow of cash.
- Ensure efficiency in milk processing to provide milk and milk products of international quality in conjunction with food-safety at competitive rates
- Help organization carry out balance in economic, environmental and social imperatives through implementation of various management systems which include ISO 9001. ISO 22000, ISO 14001, ISO 50001, OHSAS 18001.
Modes operandi adopted on TNA
As such, the Training Needs Assessment is carried out at three levels of the organization. These levels include:
1. Organizational Assessment
This evaluates the level of organizational performance. As assessment of this type will determine the Skills, Knowledge, and Ability needs of an organization. The SWOT analysis is normally preferred for this kind of assessment.
2. Occupational Assessment
Occupational Assessment identifies how and which occupational discrepancies or gaps exist, as well as examining new ways to do work that could fix those discrepancies or gaps.
3. Individual Assessment
The Individual Assessment analyzes how well an individual employee is doing a job and determines the individual’s capacity to do new or different work. Further, it examines the KSA required for the affected individual. Individual assessment provides information on which employees need training and what kind.
The TNA was being attempted through ground / area experts in consultation with the functional / group heads of the dairy cooperatives chosen under a sample size of the dairy industry with focus on Level 3. The Modes Operandi adopted at these levels includes a mechanism of PDCA as under:
Plan :Working out a schedule and the fact-sheet preparation of the diary cooperative to be undertaken for TNA
Do: Briefing CEO on the importance of human-assets, T & D and the TNA exercise
Understanding the profile of the dairy cooperative through - Field visit, Plant inspection and financial status.
- Briefing Group-Heads / Sectional-Heads on importance of Human assets in the rapidly changing scenario.
- Carry out group discussion, interviews, and awareness on various management systems and identification of areas of training needs for basic 4 levels MOST
Analysis and Documentation
- Statistics on TNs and Analysis
- Documentation : Brief introduction to milk union, TNA Table, Important observations & broad recommendations, Conclusion
Scope & Coverage
The TNA exercise initially covers western region - the dairy cooperatives in the state of Maharashtra, Goa and Madhya Pradesh. The dairy cooperatives which have undergone the TNA exercise include:
Aurangabad, Koyana, Indapur, Baramati, Sangamner, Walva, Sangali, Warana, Akluj, Kopargaon
Ujjain, Indore, Bhopal, Gwalior
So far the TNA has been carried out for more than 4472 personnel working with 15 Dairy Cooperatives handling around 30 llpd of milk. The broad findings are given below.
1. The move on TNA was found to be widely accepted and appreciated in the industry by the milk coops.
2. Addressing quality & cost is the critical to growth of the industry and sharpening HR asset is being felt the need of the hour
3. “Right Person for the Right Job” concept missing in small unions handling around 0.50 llpd.
4. A robust system on AI activities including tagging and identification of the animals missing in most of the unions.
5. Major areas of Training Needs emerging are :
- Cleaning Milk Production
- Quality & Food Safety Management System
- Total Productive Maintenance
- ISO 50001, Energy Management System
- Total Quality Management
- Milk Drying Operations and Safety Measures
- Animal fertility, AI delivery and monitoring system
Observations & Recommendations based on field visit and plant inspection:
Some of the major observations and the recommendations shared with the Dairy Cooperatives based on the field visits and the plant inspections are highlighted below:
- Food safety & Raw-milk – a matter of great concern making CMP training (Awareness, Practices, AMCU, BMCU), a universal demand at all levels starting from village coops to end marketing of milk and milk products.
- Concern on rising cost of milk-production – Ration balancing, GAPs like management, feeding, breeding (AI) and disease control and a robust monitoring system, the answer
- Concern on Quality and Food safety of milk & milk products
o Modernization of milk procurement system through introduction of AMCU & BMCU and elimination of can-milk reception.
o Introduction of ISO 9001 & ISO 22000
o Compliance to Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 and sequel Rules & Regulations, 2011.
· Human safety, Plant safety, Environmental safety and Energy Conservation & Management.
o Introduction of OHSAS 18001, ISO 14001 aligned to Q-systems: ISO 9001 & ISO 22000.
o Plant efficiency & Energy conservation –
- Replacement of old milk pasteurizers with newer ones having regeneration efficiency of more than 90%.
- Phasing out the pneumatic milk packaging machines with the mechanical ones (preferably high-speed machines).
- Refrigeration, being the weak operational area, the quality & food-safety issues on rise
- Introduction of ISO 50001
- MN Buch