Management of Infertility

  • Infertility is a temporary disturbance in reproductive function wherein the animal cannot become pregnant.  Normally an animal with a healthy reproductive function should calve every 12-14 months.
  • Infertility causes economic losses to the farmers due to delay in maturity, calving and milk production. The farmer also incurs losses by maintaining an unproductive animal.
  • Infertility may be due to various reasons like: (i) Diseases of genital organs (ii) Infectious diseases (iii) Physiological  causes like absence of heat, repeat breeding, silent heat, cystic ovary (iv) Anatomical causes (v) Faulty AI technique.



  • Inseminate at appropriate time of the heat. (See chapter on heat detection)
  • Repeat AI may be required in cases of prolonged heat for conception to occur.
  • Close observation  is required to detect silent heat, especially in buffaloes.
  • Provide proper nutrition right from birth of the animal.
  • Provide adequate quantities of mineral mixture.
  • Reduce heat stress on the animal by providing clean drinking water at all times and adequate shade or cooling systems.
  • Ascertain whether the personnel providing AI services is adequately qualified.
  • Consult  a  veterinarian if  a  regularly cycling animal has not  conceived even after  3 inseminations to  identify  the  problem. Repeated  inseminations may cause permanent damage to the reproductive organs.
  • Animals with anatomical conditions may not conceive.
  • Infection/diseases of reproductive tract also may lead to infertility. Consult a veterinarian for proper advice and treatment.



  • Only timely heat detection is in the hands of the farmer.
  • Proper handling of semen, proper time of insemination, proper AI technique and site of deposition of semen are in the hands of trained personnel (vets or AI technicians).
  • It is therefore very important to ensure that AI is being done only by trained personnel to avoid complications or problems later on.
  • A healthy cross bred heifer should come into heat by 18 months or earlier.
  • Buffaloes and local breeds may take more time to mature ( around 24 months).


                                          Manage infertility-ensure conception